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Chronology

16th century: Wars of religion
1517: Emergence of Protestantism (publication of the 95 Theses of Martin Luther)
1534 : Schism of the Church of England
1598 : Edict of Nantes, founding text on religious freedom
1869-1870 : First Ecumenical Council of the Vatican of the Roman Catholic Church
1914-1918 : First World War
1940-1945: Second World War and Holocaust
1953: Entry into force of the European Convention on Human Rights, Article 9 of which guarantees freedom of religion
Second half of the 20th century: Diversification of the European religious landscape, notably due to immigration
1962-1965: Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican of the Roman Catholic Church
1966: Adoption of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, whose article 18 guarantees freedom of religion
1981: Adoption of the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief by the United Nations General Assembly
1982: Appointment of a special adviser for liaison with the churches by the European Union
1990: Launch of the "A Soul for Europe" initiative by Jacques Delors, President of the European Commission
1991 : Foundation of the European Humanist Federation
1991 : Dissolution of the U.S.S.R.
1993 : The European Court of Human Rights delivers the Kokkinakis v. Greece judgment, the first judgment concerning Article 9 of the Convention, and freedom of religion
1995: First cases of sexual abuse within the Catholic Church
1997: Adoption of Declaration No. 11 on the status of churches and non-confessional organisations, annexed to the Treaty of Amsterdam
1999: The European Court of Human Rights delivers the Buscarini and Others v. San Marino judgment, the first judgment concerning Article 9 delivered by the Grand Chamber
2000: Adoption of the Charter of Fundamental Rights by the European Union, whose Article 10 guarantees freedom of religion
2000: Adoption of Directive 2000/78 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation, Article 4, § 2 of which provides an exception to the principle of non-discrimination for churches and religious or philosophical organisations
2004: First major terrorist attack by Al-Qaeda on European soil, in Spain
2009: Entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty; the Charter of Fundamental Rights is now part of the primary law of the European Union.
2017: The Court of Justice of the European Union delivers the Achbita and Bougnaoui judgments, its first judgments concerning the wearing of religious symbols at work
2020: Emergence of the Coronavirus crisis in Europe, which led to unprecedented restrictions on religious freedom

D 16 September 2022    ARomain Mertens

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