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Some key dates

5th century AD: Settlement of the territory by Slavs.
567-595: Avar conquest; as a defense against the Avars, Samo´s Empire was established – the first tribal union of the Western Slavs, most probably in the Upper-Danube space (623-658). A reference to the battle between Samo´s Empire and Avars and Franks (Samo´s Empire victory at Wogastisburg, 631) has been preserved in the chronicle of Fredegard.
Beginning of the 9th century: Pribina´s Princedom in Nitra (828 – the first Christian church), since 833 part of Great Moravia – the first state unit of the western Slavs.
863: Arrival of Constantine-Cyril and Methodius.
End of the 9th century: raid of the ancient Hungarian tribes and subjugation of the territory.
1000: Coronation of Stephan I, Hungarian King, establishment of the Kingdom of Hungary. Slovakia also became part of it (as a border dukedom in the 11th century).
13th-15th cent. : Economical and cultural progress, influence of the Western culture with Latin as formal language (1467 – establishment of Academia Istropolitana in Bratislava).
1526: After the Battle of Mohacs, Hungary becomes part of the Habsburgian Monarchy. The southern territories of Slovakia come under Turkish occupation. Slovakia becomes the center of the Kingdom of Hungary, with Bratislava as the capital of the Kingdom from 1526 to 1784. The coronation of Hungarian kings took place there fom 1563-1830.
16th century: Reformation (with centers in Bardejov, Prešov, Banská Bystrica), Counter-Reformation follows.
End of the 18th century: National Revival period, codification of the literary Slovak, constitution of the modern Slovak nation.
1848: During the revolution of 1948-1849, the Slovaks supported the Austrian Emperor against Hungarian national and revolutionary movement. Slovak intellectuals - Štúr, Hurban and Hodža - established the First Slovak National Council and called for independence from the Hungarian part of the Habsburg Monarchy. The Slovak National Council stopped its activity after revolution ended in failure, and Slovakia remained part of Hungarian part of monarchy.
1861: Memorandum of the Slovak Nation as the basic program document of the Slovak national movement.
1867: Austro-Hugarian Settlement – transformation of the Habsburgian Monarchy into the dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The autonomous status of Hungary did not accomplish the claims of non-Hungarian nations.
End of 1890s: The concept of national unity arises amongst Slovaks and Czechs (“hlasisti” – Slovak Evangelic intellectuals around the daily newspaper “Hlas”).
After the outbreak of the World War I: Foreign Resistance appears against the Habsburg monarchy, calling for the cooperation of Czech and Slovaks (1915 – Treaty of Cleveland, 1917 – Treaty of Pittsburgh).
1916: Czechoslovak National Council was established (Masaryk, Beneš, Štefánik).
October 28, 1918: Declaration of the independence of the Czecho-Slovak Republic. Slovakia entered it with the Martin Declaration on October 30, 1918.
September 30, 1938: An agreement was signed in Munich, Germany, which allowed Nazi Germany to partially dismember the country by occupying what was called the Sudetenland (a mainly German-speaking region bordering Germany and Austria). The remainder of "rump" Czechoslovakia was renamed Czecho-Slovakia and included a greater degree of Slovak political autonomy. Southern and eastern Slovakia, however, were reclaimed by Hungary at the First Vienna Award in 2 November, 1938. On 18 November, the autonomy of the Slovak country in Czecho-Slovakia was declared.
March 14, 1939: On the basis of the protection agreement with Germany, establishment of the independent Slovak Republic (end of the Czecho-Slovak Republic). Close collaboration of the Slovak Government and Nazi Germany.
1944: Slovak National Uprising – armed antifascist revolt that rounded off the gradual disintegration of the wartime Slovak republic.
1945: The Slovak Republic came to an end, its territory becoming part of the renewed Czechoslovak Republic.
1948: Beginning of the communist rule in Czechoslovakia (after the elections in 1946, the Communist party became the strongest party in the Czech lands. In Slovakia, the Communist party was the second, the Democratic Party having won the elections).
1954: Trials of the “bourgeois nationalists”, who were prominent members of the Communist Party and members of the committee, and had prepared the Slovak National Uprising in 1944.
1960: Approval of the Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
1968: From January, democratisation of the communist regime. Slovak Alexander Dubček as the leader of the Communist Party started the reforms for establishing “the socialism with a human face“. The invasion of five armies of the Warsaw Pact, on August 21st 1968, stopped the processes of reforms.
17 November 1989: The “Velvet Revolution” put an end to the communist rule.
1989: Formation of civic democratic movements. Abolition of the leading role of the Communist Party in the Czechoslovak society in the Constitution.
23 April 1990: Changing the name of the state to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.
17 July 1992: The "Declaration of the Slovak National Council on the Sovereignty of the Slovak Republic" was approved. On 1 September 1992, the Constitution of the Slovak Republic was approved.
1 January 1993: Establishment of two independent states, i.e. the Slovak and the Czech Republic.
February 1993: Michal Kovác was elected the first President of the independent Slovak Republic.
2000: Basic agreement between the Slovak Republic and the Holy See (Catholic Church). Later, similar agreements with the other recognised churches in Slovakia were signed.
2004: Slovakia became a member of NATO. From 1 May, also a member of the European Union.
2009: Slovakia became a member of the European Monetary Union, and adopted the Euro currency.

D 3 February 2016    AMiroslav Tížik

CNRS Unistra Dres Gsrl

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